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Чтение книги "The implementation of the economic cycle: freedom, trust, duty" (страница 2)

   1.1. The essence as a philosophical category

   The essence as a philosophical category, which defines the object of study from the standpoint of its practical relevance in the modern paradigm, describing it in terms of properties, characteristics, interdependencies with the surrounding reality. In the philosophy of nature as a category has a dual definition, the object has an internal and an external entity. Categories – a form of reflection in thought of the universal laws of the objective world[10].
   The inner essence characterizes the potential of the subject, and the outer sum of its practical dynamics. Having come to know the inner essence can draw conclusions about the natural features which are characteristic properties, potential, define the «personality» of the object. Having learned the external entity can draw conclusions about the activity and the applicability of the «identity» in contemporary reality. Outside entity exposes the set of connections and relations of the subject and the world around him.
   Thus, the essence of this definition of a static phenomenon, with the identification of his «individual» characteristics and capabilities, as well as a dynamic phenomenon, with an exposure or concentrating on a set of relations the object under study and other social phenomena that is the subject of knowledge in a practical reality.
   Outside entity characterized by the set of established links and relationships between the object under study and the world around him. These connections can be initiated by both the environment and as a result of internal or external stimulated reasoned decisions already active subject. Mechanism for further cooperation outlined in the psyche, the human mind, or formed by nature in the potential effects and is waiting for complete implementation.

   1.2. Definition of entrepreneurship

   Entrepreneurship as a social phenomenon, above all, needs an enterprise, the subject, with an entrepreneurial characteristic of inner self. What is this feature, many interpretations, but they are common in the following: innovation and novelty, originality and liveliness of mind for its implementation.
   Behavior of a person manages his mind, it is structurally similar to the essence of the phenomenon. Represents the inner and outer world of man. In the inner world of man is formed by the picture which he seeks to bring the outside world. Depending on the consistency of the inner and outer world of man there are various psychological processes that influence human behavior.
   The entrepreneur carries out the transformation in the external world, the company identifies the economically active subjects of their cases. Thus, the rich man's inner world is embodied in the external world, and entrepreneur tastes wonderful sense of calm on the success achieved by accumulating the energy and inspiration for future initiatives.
   Innovation, introduced into the world through the perception of society, creates a massive need, which initially met the entrepreneur organized mechanism. A further meeting is also the forces of economic actors, but with the characteristic of conventionalism. That's what this activity is inherent in technological specialization, the monotony, the imaginary trade secret protection, planning, reporting, and other, performance attributes.
   A natural source of legal norms is prevailing in a legal vacuum social relation, not contrary to applicable law and approved by the authorization, the State. In the future members of society who are subject to this rule of law, to know it and act according to its provisions, and the law enforcement system constantly monitor its implementation.
   The entrepreneur is like a good social group, their behavior has created a social norm, which was further supported by the state. All other economically active subjects like the rest of society, dutifully performing its provisions.

   1.3. International enterprise

   Manifestation of the external entity is to activate the set of assumptions. The seat of the prerequisites is the inner essence.
   Considering the global economy as an integrated system with dynamic national economies, it is possible to identify its nature, by analysis. The main actors in this field are the states, international organizations and institutional education. State, above all, have sovereignty and territory covered by the mandated order, which should be public and institutional education institutions, or just carry out their activities. International organizations «play» education, the catalyst, coordinating role. Institutional education organizations presented various forms of ownership and nationality, it is manifested in their international enterprise activities. It is in the implementation of the full range of economically significant action to address social needs. The activities of the entrepreneur aims at the consumer psyche him on his mechanics, absolutely identical to the psyche of the entrepreneur. With one amendment, if the employer prevails inner peace agreement with the outside world, then the consumer of the external world with the inner world. Many believe, will object to this statement, warning, argue a position. It is obvious that an entrepreneur comes from the «mass market», exploring international enterprise this is especially clear. Commodity will be offered to customers of various government entities, therefore, in this dynamic process, each potential customer in your outer world will have an idea of the existence of innovation. The role of mental stimulation or approval given to marketing is a natural motivation for the consumer. Thus, a strong-willed entrepreneur transforming activity and selective passivity of the consumer.
   «Nothing comes from nowhere and does not disappear». Describing the practice entrepreneur J.A. Schumpeter coined the term «neue kombinationen»[11]. A person is in principle an employer only if it «carries neue kombinationen» – it ceases to be such when they established the «case» will continue to operate within the circuit. That is, the entrepreneur provides practical innovation. If his idea is successful, the economic actors who have less marked the beginning of a creative appreciate it. There is a natural introduction of the idea of the inner world of enterprise with the potential employer, and they interpret the innovation, organizing commercial «work». Globalization of economic space allows creative individuals to gain access to information resources around the world and generate any ideas. An enterprise entity to choose innovative projects and implement them in any area, from their point of view, the most favorable.
   In a narrow sense, international enterprise is a combination of factors of production in space. The enterpriser, who owns the information, creates know-how, «combining» the factors of production to meet various social needs. Model combination, wherein the novelty, relevance is a concentrated understanding of international enterprise, its essence. The practice also sees new models based on them and builds an international enterprise. If the economic rewards of entrepreneurial activity are the storage, the results of the «neue kombinationen», and an international enterprise that focuses on an evolving routine operations. An entrepreneur, who remains as such for decades, also occurs rarely as a merchant who had never been even a little entrepreneur[12].

   1.4. Institutional subject of international enterprises

   The concept of «entrepreneur» we have already identified also drew attention to the peculiar subject of economic activity started as an entrepreneur and enterpriser. Across the world space most economically active subjects are the transnational corporations. This institutional entities established under the laws of individual states and carry out their activities in many states.
   Entrepreneurship is a manifestation of the internal components of the subject, this statement is true, including in relation to transnational corporations. In the role of innovator can make not only organized the enterprise person on the basis of public understanding, is an entrepreneur, but also hired manager, and a regular employee with the inclinations innovator. All of them, in certain circumstances, having entrepreneurial potential are able to make it a «neue kombinationen».
   Transnational corporations incorporate the best capabilities from all over the world, all factors of production have significant resources, are similar to state entities. The main difference is the absence of sovereign territory, they have the absolute right to property ownership. Property itself is located within a particular State and potentially it may be compensated exemption for public use. Financial capital is taxed, they realize its administration to minimize the «loss» and are in dynamics for its multiplying. Carried out their calculations are made in the currencies of countries and in the aggregate of derivative financial instruments.
   Friedrich Hayek in his work «Denationalization of Money»[13], brought the idea of the possible effect of providing entrepreneurs the possibility of emission of money, the value of which would be stable, which gave confidence to the calculations by contractors, in the absence of inflation, but this innovation cannot be realized, because of the contradictions of nation-building basics. Through its implementation of public budgets will suffer financial losses, there will be redistribution of social wealth. This confirms the possibility of materializing only modest innovation that meets the modern paradigm and provides a constant overflow of dynamic opportunities employer and public conservatism of the sovereign state.

   2. Entrepreneurial risk

   Entrepreneurial risk is the designation of certain aspects of reality, and any event defined in the mind of the researcher through awareness of its essence. The essence of a two-fold, due to the presence in every phenomenon of internal and external entities. The inner essence embraces the potency, possibilities, and vital characteristics of the phenomenon. External – outside this inner discovery, is what characterizes the part of its communication with other objects of the system of relations[14]. Outside entity – a manifestation of the inner nature of reality. First of all, we are dealing with a foreign entity, and identifying patterns of similarity in our consciousness manifests the inner nature, which in the phenomenon is stable. Exterior is dynamic and is manifested in different «roles» depending on the surrounding environment. When the question about the essence of any phenomenon implies the definition of the inner nature through the prism of foreign substance. The urgency of the matter in view of the relentless dynamism of the external world and the various manifestations of it in the essence of phenomena, like the actor playing different roles in productions throughout life. Depends on the competence of the researcher to identify the essence of the phenomenon or the naming of the phenomenon as a new-found, original. The dynamics of the original and latter-day may be only a manifestation of it, but not the inner essence, constitute a basis.
   Uncertainty of events and their lack of control, and if there is any factor set of circumstances cause the existence of entrepreneurial risk to innovators in economic activity. Characterized by a combination of opportunities to achieve it as undesirable and especially favorable deviations from planned results[15].
   «Neue kombinationen» of a combination of factors of production on the idea of the entrepreneur promises to him on enterprise profits, but at a different end of the “stick” of its activities is damage, which not only absorb the borrowed capital, but also potential future investors’ attention. With the implementation of enterprise ideas rationally use borrowed capital, thus, the capitalist entrepreneur to shift part of their risk and become a debtor, but this status is natural. Entrepreneur to implement the «neue kombinationen» borrows from the public, above all, money capital, which acquired the elements of the combination. It was at this point, the entrepreneur sells its own decisions and affect the materialization of the risk. Risk is the uncertainty of the situation to its stakeholders.
   Thought J.A. Schumpeter that the subject of economic activity in its implementation appears in the role of the entrepreneur, the enterpriser’s role in reflecting the actual situation. The entrepreneur, who does not have the capital to implement their ideas, is in talks with the enterpriser, who in turn, anticipating the decline of the enterprise, looking for creative advisers. But each of them listens only to the competent interlocutor and opponent, and the criterion of the whole practice. Because as an entrepreneur, in the narrow sense, and for a enterpriser in a broad sense, it is important to the opinions of others about him, about his actions, since it is a favorable public opinion is a source of attention to the beginnings of an innovative entrepreneur. The situation is different from the enterprise, but is the subject of another study.
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